Every January and February, commercial beekeepers from every corner of the country send their bees to the California Central Valley to participate in the largest pollination event in the world – the California almond bloom. We (BIP’s tech team field specialists) follow these beekeepers from our respective regions to California to assess colonies and collect samples in the almond orchards. Having all of us in the field at one time, looking at bees from every corner of the country, gives us the opportunity to assess the pulse of the industry. We are also able to observe firsthand the conditions on the ground during the almond bloom and see how they may be impacting the bees. Of course, every year is different and the last three provide good examples of the range of conditions experienced by bees while pollinating almonds.
This past February (2020), we saw nearly perfect weather conditions, with mild temperatures and virtually no rain during the bloom. On the other hand, February 2019 was not as ideal, with wet weather delaying the bloom, and slowing the bees’ spring buildup. During breaks in the rain, pesticide sprayer rigs were seen in most orchards during the day while bees where flying. One beekeeper has had bee bread tested for pesticides regularly for over two years now in order to establish a baseline for which pesticides their bees are being exposed to (Fig 1). During each sampling period 1-3 varroacides were detected. Varroacides are applied to colonies by the beekeeper for Varroa mite control, and some leave residues that can be detected in analysis, if the treatment is applied just prior to testing. The number of unique herbicides and insecticides in bee bread sampled in almonds stayed about the same over the eight sampling events (2-4 insecticides and 2-6 herbicides). However, the number of unique fungicides detected increased from 2 in 2018 to 14 in 2019 and 2020.
Not only have the number of fungicides detected in bee bread increased, the concentration of multiple fungicides found in 2019 and 2020 exceeds the LD50 (in parentheses in Fig 2). LD50 is the amount of the substance that when ingested, will kill 50% of the bees in a 24-hour period. These fungicides are considered relatively safe for adult bees, however their effect on the brood is less known.
The high number of fungicides detected in 2019 and 2020 likely reflects almonds growers’ desire to prevent almond fungal diseases from becoming resistant to certain classes of fungicides. To minimize the risk of developing resistance, an increasing number of fungicides are being co-applied, per recommendations from the best management practices for almond disease control.
Out of 8 colonies inspected in 2019 for “Beekeeper A”, half had European Foulbrood (EFB) and all had dwindling populations. Pesticide test results in 2019 showed very high levels of Pyramethanil in the bee bread (see fig 2), which may or may not have been a contributing factor. Pyramethanil is a widely used broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits protein formation essential in larval development. The BIP tech team observed a higher prevalence of EFB and chalkbrood in 2019 compared to previous years, and there is a possibility that the fungicides in the stored pollen are having negative effects on brood health. This suspicion needs further attention. Previous investigations have shown the potential for fungicides in bee bread to reduce its nutritional quality (read Yoder et al., 2013), and possibly cause increased chalkbrood infection, viral loads (read Degrandi-Hoffman et al., 2015), and Nosema infection rate (read Pettis et al., 2013).
In the February 2020 sample, just as many unique fungicides showed up as in the 2019 samples, and some in large quantities. However, although looking at the levels in comparison to the LD50 value of Pyramethanil in Fig. 2 seems alarming, it doesn’t tell the whole story. The quantity of residues found in a sample is not equivalent to the quantity of residues ingested by a bee in her lifetime. For a better evaluation of the risk associated with consumption levels of these pesticides, experts have developed a hazard quotient (HQ value) taking into consideration consumption. The calculation involves dividing the total residues by the LD50 and comparing it to a benchmark of 1000. In this case 6,500ppm divided by 100, the LD50 of Pyramethanil, we obtain 65, a value below the “alert” benchmark of 1000. The Bee Informed Partnership now uses hazard quotient (HQ) in all pesticide reports to put these numbers into context. Note however that the LD50 and HQ quotient only take into consideration effects on adult bees but not the effects on larvae and larval development, which are still understudied.
We were expecting to see far less fungicides in 2020 because the weather was so ideal and less conducive to fungal infection hopefully leading to reduced the pressure for growers to spray. This was not the case, high numbers and levels of fungicides were found in 2020 samples. None of the Feb, 2020 results matched the levels seen with the Feb, 2019 Pyramethanil sample results, and on a positive note, the colonies did not have any overt signs of EFB or other brood diseases at the time of the 2020 colony inspections.
In addition to samples collected for Beekeeper A, the tech team was also called for two emergency visits in 2019, where the beekeepers were having problems with dwindling colonies and lack of healthy brood. Pesticide samples were taken at the time of inspections. Results again showed high levels of Pyramethanil, and additionally high levels of Tebuconazole (See Fig 3). One of these beekeepers also had high mite levels and other health issues. No cause and effect can be established, but it is interesting to see these large quantities of the same fungicides showing up in the samples.
Honey bees are not exposed to fungicides exclusively during almond pollination. Blueberries are also treated heavily with fungicides during certain times of the year, and EFB tends to show up in colonies used in blueberry pollination. The samples from Beekeeper A in 2018 and 2019 had high levels of a number of fungicides, with the specific chemicals mostly different in each year. Overall 2019 had higher concentrations of more types when compared to 2018 (Fig 4.) EFB was seen in colonies from both sampling events.
In summary, we think it would be beneficial to focus more research on fungicides and their effects on honey bee larvae health and development. Synergistic effects are especially important to look at because these fungicides are so often found in combinations with one another. It is difficult to do field-level trials to examine fungicide effects when so many variables also influence honey bee health. It is possible that in good weather and forage conditions bees can withstand a high load of pesticides, but conversely, in poor weather or forage conditions, the bees are more prone to suffer negative consequences from exposure to these substances.
Commercial beekeepers have limited options to avoid fungicides, particularly during almond pollination. Staying away from these pollination events is often not an economically viable option — the revenue source for some beekeepers are essential to staying in business as honey prices remain low. Some beekeepers with good relationships with their growers can educate and influence them to spray before or after the bees are brought in, or at least after dark. Feeding pollen substitute may also help by “diluting” what the bees are bringing in from the field. Beekeepers have had plenty to worry about in recent years, and the fungicide issue is yet another factor to keep on the radar for the future. A good first step might be to greatly increase pesticide testing in pollination crops so we know what bees are being exposed to, then perform lab analysis on these compounds to determine effects on honey bee larval development.