2018 Northern California Update

Almond Bloom 2018

Weather in Northern California greatly fluctuated this spring. It was in the 70 and warmer before the almond bloom started, then once the trees started blooming the weather turned cold. There were a few days when temperatures dropped to the low 20’s. These temperatures damaged the early pollinated almonds and will most likely affect the overall yields of early blooming varieties, which suffered damage by frost in some locations. We sampled many hives during the bloom and they were packed with pollen even though the bee flight hours were low due to cold windy weather. The weather also impacted the bee’s temperament, bees were more aggressive in open locations where they are subjected to a lot of wind. I have included some images from the bloom.

Here was a shot from this spring when everything was green and lush!

After living in Northern California for several years, I have yet to experience a normal year, each year has been very different; from last year’s rain that lasted for months to this year’s cooler and windy spring. The queen breeders somehow got lucky with this springs weather. They had enough nice day for queen mating mixed in with rain to keep flowers, such as vetch, blooming. There was some wind but it did not seem to affect mating percentages even if it dried the vetch out fast.

As we moved into summer sampling, most of our beekeepers were splitting, requeening, treating, feeding and getting colonies ready to move to summer locations to produce honey. We have been busy sampling, assuring beekeepers treatments have been effective in controlling varroa mite levels. Interestingly, we noted higher than normal nosema levels as well as chalkbrood this spring. We saw some colonies with elevated varroa mite levels but overall the mite levels have been average. Bears have been a small problem thus far but as we move into the dearth of the summer, more colonies will be subjected to bear damage.

As usual, everything was pretty dry by the end of May.

Chalkbrood

Sample Bottle with bees inside

Here was a colony with several mites, which is common to find at certain times of year depending on if they were treated or not.

Here was a colony with way too many mites and would be considered a ‘Mite Bomb’

Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) 2018

Here is another shot of mite feces in the cells.

If you start seeing Mite feces in the hive this indicates you have a varroa load which is probably high.

Beekeeper treating with Apivar.

Beekeeper treating with Apivar.

We haven’t seen much European foulbrood (EFB) this year in Northern California but other teams throughout the US are reporting a potential uptick in EFB. Here in Northern CA, a lot of beekeepers talk about snotty brood or crud, which I believe is EFB misidentified or sampled incorrectly. If you see ‘snotty brood’, you could treat it with terramycin and see if it clears up. In the images below, I have circled larvae in orange which should be sampled for EFB identification. I outlined larvae that should not be sampled with a red square. The orange circles represent larvae that are newly infected with the bacteria and should come up positive. The red squares represent larvae too far gone to sample, secondary bacteria often move in and greatly depreciate the chance of getting a positive EFB diagnosis.

European Foulbrood 2018

European Foulbrood: Orange circles are good for sampling. Red squares are old larvae not good for sampling .

European Foulbrood: Orange circles are good for sampling. Red squares are old larvae not good for sampling.

European Foulbrood: Orange circles are good for sampling. Red squares are old larvae not good for sampling

European Foulbrood: Orange circles are good for sampling. Red squares are old larvae not good for sampling .

If you sample the younger larvae you will most likely get a positive result as shown in the image.

One of the big topics for debate is the loss of Fumagillin-B (See letter to beekeepers below). This has beekeepers and especially queen breeders worried about selling the cleanest bees/queens possible if the product is not available. We will be working with beekeepers to try and find alternatives and to test their efficacy.

Medivet letter to the customer.Fumagillin letter to customer

Other than the heat, beekeepers in northern California have been dealing with varroa mites, feeding and supplying water to apiaries. Beekeepers here have treated for varroa. Mite levels have not been high yet this summer but I am sure as fall approaches, there will be colonies with higher mite loads.

Apiary

Written By: Rob Snyder

Rob Snyder has written 64 post in this blog.

I currently work out of the Butte County Cooperative Extension in Oroville, CA as a Crop Protection Agent. I received my B.S. in biology from Delaware Valley College, PA. There I attained a majority of my entomological knowledge from Dr. Chris Tipping and Dr. Robert Berthold. After graduation, I was an apiary inspector for 2 years at the Department of Agriculture in Pennsylvania. In my third year there, I still inspected some colonies but I mainly focused on The Pennsylvania Native Bee Survey (PANBS) where I pinned, labeled, entered data and identified native bees to genus species. Leo Donavall assisted me in learning the basics on positive Identifications of the native bees. Around the same time I began working on coordinating kit construction and distribution for the APHIS National Honey Bee Survey. I was also fortunate to conduct many of these surveys with fellow co-worker Mike Andree and Nathan Rice of USDA/ARS throughout California. All of these experiences have led me to where I am today, working to assist beekeepers in maintaining genetic diverse colonies resistant to parasites while reducing the use of chemical treatments in colonies. The BIP Diagnostic Lab at the University of MD is in an integral part of this process by generating reports in which we can track change and report to beekeepers vital information in a timely manner which may influence their treatment decisions.

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